Spatial Temporal Earth
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Characterizing the Earth's patterns
Tes) specific genes and changes in their expression may impact on a person's risk of developing parkinson's disease (pd), researchers from boston university school of medicine (busm) reported in the journal plos one. The researchers say they have carried out the first ever genome-wide evaluation of genetic variants linked to parkinson's disease. Jeanne latourelle, dsc, and richard h. Myers, phd, explained that a recent study published by the pdgc (pd genome wide association study consortium) had shown that people with genetic variants in or close to the genes hla, mapt, snca, rit2, and gak/dgkq had a higher-than-average risk of developing parkinson's disease. However, in that study, the mechanism behind the higher risk had not been determined. Boston university school of medicine reported in plos one in july 2012 that the foxo1 gene plays an important part in the pathological mechanisms of parkinson's disease. That study is said to have used the largest number of brain samples used in a wide-genome expression study of pd. Latourelle suggested that perhaps a genetic variant might change how a gene is expressed in the brain, resulting in a higher risk of developing parkinson's. The scientists say that their findings may pave the way for treatments to correct the genetic variants and thus possibly reverse the effects of parkinson's disease. cheap viagra cheap generic viagra cheap generic viagra viagra online cheap viagra viagra online viagra online buy viagra 26 parkinson's patients compared to 24 healthy controls latourelle and colleagues set out to determine what the relationship might be between pd-associated genetic variants and levels of gene expressions detected in the frontal cortex of 26 people who had been diagnosed with parkinson's disease, with 24 samples from the brains of healthy individuals. They determined gene expression by using a microarray that screened what the effects of genetic variants were on the expression of genes located very near the variant - called cis-effects - and genes that were far from the variant, such as genes on a totally different chromosome, called trans-effect. To recap - cis-effects are those on very nearby genes, while trans-effect are those on distant genes. When they analyzed the cis-effects, it was observed that many genetic variants in the mapt region showed a significant association with the expression of multiple nearby genes, including gene loc644246, the duplicated genes lrrc37a and lrrc37a2, and the gene dcakd. They also observed significant cis-effects between variants in the hla region on chromosome 6 and hla-dqa1 and hla-dqa1, two genes that were very near. Parkinson's disease what is parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease is a gradually progressive, degenerative neurologic disorder which typically impairs the patient's motor skills, speech, writing, as well as some other functions. Read more... Most popular articles 1 month 3 months 6 months 1 neurons made from adult cells in the brain 2 acupuncture may benefit parkinson's patients 3 mirapex (pramipexole) for parkinson's treatmen. Overview
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Spatial Temporal Earth specializes in characterizing natural patterns.  These patterns often yield insight into the place and time they are found... landscapes and seascapes are created by a combination of biological and physical forces, while rural, urban, and cityscapes are further influenced by human interventions. 

The patterns that characterize a place include both visual and audio, as well as remotely sensed variables.  They tend to vary both spatially and temporally on a variety of scales. 

Cicadas and crickets might dominate the sounds of one place for the summer, while wind and traffic noise might be mostly heard in the same place during the winter.   Traffic noise might vary between rush hour and weekends. 

Trees, and the gaps between them, are often characteristic of forested regions.  The pattern of trees and gaps varies with the types of trees, the number of streams and rivers, the steepness of the hills, and other features particular to the area.  A pine forest has a very different pattern than a hardwood forest when seen from the air.   In the same way, the ground cover beneath the trees has it's own characteristic pattern of coverage and gaps, on smaller and smaller scales.  At some point,  the grain size of the soil begins to matter.

Many natural patterns can be characterized by using fractals, which describe the scaling properties of the system.  Scaling occurs when a system "looks like itself" at different scales.  For example, the shore around a lake or ocean has a pattern of inlets and points.  But within each inlet, there is a smaller scale pattern of smaller inlets and points, down to the scale of the sand or rocks on the beach. 

Benoit Mandelbrot described this phenomenon in a paper called "How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension" in 1967.  He pointed out that if you measure the coast using a long ruler, let's say 100 feet, you get a different (shorter) number than if you measure it using a shorter ruler.  However, the amount the length differs by for different length rulers is consistent for a given type of coastline.  For Britain, the lenth changes differently than for Norway.  Each coast has its own characteristic scaling, which can also be characterized as a fractal dimension. Since the differences in the two coastline's fractal dimensions are due to the types of geology and weathering in the two places, it is not hard to see that there is a link between the pattern you see in the coastline, and the processes that sculpted the coastlines.   

Spatial Temoral Earth explores the patterns that characterize different areas, and the underlying processes.  Our goal is to share them, and explain them in a variety of venues, from elementary schools to community colleges, and from international scientific conferences to government agencies.


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