|Spatial Temporal Earth|
Characterizing the Earth's patterns
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Spatial Temporal Earth specializes in characterizing natural patterns. These patterns often yield insight into the place and time they are found... landscapes and seascapes are created by a combination of biological and physical forces, while rural, urban, and cityscapes are further influenced by human interventions.
The patterns that characterize a place include both visual and audio, as well as remotely sensed variables. They tend to vary both spatially and temporally on a variety of scales.
Cicadas and crickets might dominate the sounds of one place for the summer, while wind and traffic noise might be mostly heard in the same place during the winter. Traffic noise might vary between rush hour and weekends.
Trees, and the gaps between them, are often characteristic of forested regions. The pattern of trees and gaps varies with the types of trees, the number of streams and rivers, the steepness of the hills, and other features particular to the area. A pine forest has a very different pattern than a hardwood forest when seen from the air. In the same way, the ground cover beneath the trees has it's own characteristic pattern of coverage and gaps, on smaller and smaller scales. At some point, the grain size of the soil begins to matter.
LINKS BETWEEN PATTERN AND PROCESS
Many natural patterns can be characterized by using fractals, which describe the scaling properties of the system. Scaling occurs when a system "looks like itself" at different scales. For example, the shore around a lake or ocean has a pattern of inlets and points. But within each inlet, there is a smaller scale pattern of smaller inlets and points, down to the scale of the sand or rocks on the beach.
Benoit Mandelbrot described this phenomenon in a paper called "How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension" in 1967. He pointed out that if you measure the coast using a long ruler, let's say 100 feet, you get a different (shorter) number than if you measure it using a shorter ruler. However, the amount the length differs by for different length rulers is consistent for a given type of coastline. For Britain, the lenth changes differently than for Norway. Each coast has its own characteristic scaling, which can also be characterized as a fractal dimension. Since the differences in the two coastline's fractal dimensions are due to the types of geology and weathering in the two places, it is not hard to see that there is a link between the pattern you see in the coastline, and the processes that sculpted the coastlines.
Spatial Temoral Earth explores the patterns that characterize different areas, and the underlying processes. Our goal is to share them, and explain them in a variety of venues, from elementary schools to community colleges, and from international scientific conferences to government agencies.
|Vol. 55, no. 4, 1998 article (references) article (pdf 346 kb) clinical study colon cancers and peritoneal mesothelioma occurring 29 years after abdominal radiation for testicular seminoma a case report and review of the literature d. Tassilea, a. D. Rothb, a. M. Kurtc, a. Rohnera, ph. Morela a clinic of digestive surgery, b oncosurgery and c department of pathology, geneva university hospital, geneva, switzerland address of corresponding author oncology 1998;55:289-292 (doi: 10. 1159/000011865) key words secondary malignancy radiation therapy testicular seminoma peritoneal mesothelioma abstract secondary malignancies represent an increasing problem for long survivors of primary malignancies treated by chemo- and/or radiotherapy. The occurrence of secondary myelodysplasia and leukaemias after treatment for hodgkin’s disease is well established. Secondary solid tumors are mostly observed following radiation therapy. We report the case of a patient who presented 3 abdominal solid malignancies within 3 years, 29 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma, namely 2 colon cancers and a peritoneal mesothelioma. Both types of cancer are independently reported in the literature to be more frequent in patients with a history of abdominal radiation than in the general population. To our knowledge there is no other reported case with 3, nearly simultaneously occurring separate solid tumors, which could all be related to former abdominal irradiation. cheap generic viagra buy viagra buy viagra buy cheap viagra viagra online buy viagra cheap viagra online generic viagra online buy viagra online nationalityinworldhistory.net/bsh-viagra-non-prescription-alternative-uc/ Such a radiotherapy-related long-term side effect should be taken into account when considering adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with low-risk stage i testicular seminoma. author contacts dr. Arnaud rothoncosurgery, department of surgerygeneva university hospitalch–1211 geneva 14 (switzerland)tel. 022 3727744, fax 022 3727745, e-mail roth-arnaud@diogenes. Hcuge. Ch article information number of print pages : 4 number of figures : 2, number of tables : 0, number of references : 25 journal home journal content guidelines editorial board aims and scope subscriptions search in this journal © 2012 s. Karger ag, basel. Ther tests that may show benign mesothe. |